How Did Slavery Impact Our Nation?

 

Marisa Adams and Mindee Brown

 

http://www.ket.org/underground/resources/visualarts.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Overview and Rationale

 

Teacher Background Information

 

Unit Planning Chart

 

Organization and Subject Matter Overview

 

Goals and Objectives

 

Learning Activities Bank

 

Assessment

 

Appendices

 

 

Overview and Rationale

             Social injustice has affected our society since the commencement of our nation.  It is an issue that is frequently addressed by citizens of the United States.  We feel that it is crucial to educate students on how to become active citizens who advocate social justice.  In order to achieve this goal we feel it is important to focus on a specific historical topic relative to social injustice.  The theme we have chosen for this unit is, “What impact has slavery had on our nation?”

 

No subject in the American past has incited greater discussion and inflamed more controversy than slavery. From the arrival of the first Africans at Jamestown in 1619, through the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, to contemporary historical debates, the presence and enslavement of Africans has been defended, attacked and analyzed.  (http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/slavery/slave1.html)

 

            From this quote it is evident the impact slavery has had and continues to have on our nation.  Since the beginning of anti-African American sentiment through our current modern society, slavery continues to be a controversial and conflicting issue.  Slavery affects each individual living within the United States borders and throughout our world.  We have focused on this social issue, because we want to instill in our students an understanding of past and present discrimination relating to race, and the division it created within our nation.  Our motivation in developing this curriculum unit plan is to educate and encourage our students on how to become aware, concerned, and prepared to dissolve discrimination and social injustices relative to racial issues. 

            We feel that this theme of slavery closely aligns with the NCSS Standards, which are:

NCSS Strand II:

a) Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

c) Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past.

f) Use knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with elements of historical inquiry, to inform decision-making about and action-taking on public issues. 

 

            In our unit we plan to engage students in activities, which will help them view the past, present, and future with multiple perspectives and varying viewpoints.  They will connect past experiences of slaves and understand the impact slavery has had on our society’s views and values.  Overall they will develop the skills and abilities to become actively involved in their communities by becoming active, informed citizens. 

            We also feel that the following Utah core objectives appropriately fit our intentions for this unit plan.  

 

Objectives

Standard 6

Objective 3:

Trace the development of social and political movements

 

Standard 11

Objective 2:

Examine the political divisions of the United States

 

Standard 4

Objective 1:

Analyze the role of leaders in the development of the New World

 

Standard 6

Objective 2:

Examine the reasons for the Civil War (abolition)

 

Standard 7

Objective 1:

Examine the development social and political movements

 

            These objectives will help prepare students in their quest to becoming dedicated citizens to their individual communities.  They will be able to critically analyze past events and trace the development of slavery as a social injustice.

            This unit will be meaningful to the lives of students, because it will increase their level of tolerance and empathy toward those who are different from them.  We hope it allows them to think with an open mind and develop a greater appreciation for diversity.

 

 

Teacher Background Information

Beginning in the late 17th century, African slaves began arriving in the tens of thousands through to the early 18th century.  Slavery came to be an integral part of the plantation system (especially after the introduction of the cotton gin in 1793). From the late 18th century to the beginning of the Civil War, more than a million slaves were moved from the Eastern Seaboard to the Deep South, where many labored in the sugar and cotton fields. This huge internal slave trade, which often tore slave families apart, was the South's second largest enterprise; only the plantation system itself surpassed it in size.

In the Northern United States, humanitarian principles led to the appearance of the abolitionists.  They fought for idealistic principles. The abolitionists in general tended to regard slavery as evil.
            Even broader questions than slavery were raised; including the constitutional issue of states’ rights.  The two sections became more and more hostile. The slave laws and the operations of the Underground Railroad all heightened the tension.  The Underground Railroad consisted of different safe houses, which were a part of this secret system that aided slaves in their attempt to reach the North. Free blacks and sympathetic whites would help runaway slaves find food, shelter, transportation, and guide them on their trek. 

Araminta Harriet Ross was born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland in 1820 or 1821. She was the daughter of Benjamin Ross, and her mother, Harriet Greene.  Harriet was unable to read or write and yet she made nineteen journeys back to the Southern States to help free over 300 slaves, moving them to the Northern States and Canada.  Harriet was a courageous individual who experienced many dangerous situations.  As stories of her bravery grew, she soon became known as "Moses," after the Biblical Moses who led slaves out of Egypt. Though she was a hero to slaves, her popularity endangered her. After years of escaping slave hunters, white slave owners posted a reward of $40,000 for her capture. With the help of her allies and well planned routes, Tubman was never captured and the reward was never collected.  Harriet Tubman died on March 10, 1913.  Her life will be a lasting example of the realization that all of us are created equal. 

In addition to the Underground Railroad sporadic armed conflict erupted in Kansas and in the Harpers Ferry raid of John Brown. The struggle became more clearly defined as the Republican Party was formed with a definite antislavery platform.
            In the victory of the Republican presidential candidate, Abraham Lincoln(1860), the South saw a threat to Southern institutions, and the Southern states in an effort to secure those institutions resorted to secession and formed the Confederacy. The Civil War followed, and the victory of the North brought an end to slavery in the United States. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (issued in 1863, it declared all slaves in the Southern secessionist states free) was followed by other legislation, especially the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
            The end of the Civil War did not completely solve the problem of slavery and resulted in the integration of former slaves into American life.  Easily identified by the color of their skin, African Americans were subjected to segregation and other forms of discrimination practiced by most white Americans. 

 

 

Unit Planning Chart

 

How have the effects of slavery impacted our nation today?

NCSS Strand II Time, Continuity, and Change

A)    Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

C)    Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past.

F)     Use knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with elements of historical inquiry, to inform decision-making and action-taking on public issues.

Teacher Resources

-Encyclopedia

-History textbooks

-Internet

Student Literature

-Books on slavery

-Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad

-Slave Dancer

-Articles from the viewpoints of slaves

 

 

Oral Language

-role play perspective of a slave/plantation owners

-discussion/debate what is fair?

Written Language

-journal entry of a slave child

-resolution letters to the government

 

Social Studies

-What took place during the slave trade?

-How did Abraham Lincoln help bring our nation out of slavery?

-What happened to slaves on the plantations?

-Why were blacks so badly mistreated?

-How do slavery and racism relate?

-What part did the Underground Railroad play in the freedom of slaves?

-What slaves are in our world today?

Art

-Cotton art

-draw pictures of slave’s homelands

-map of plantation

-create Underground Railroad

-Create a ship

Music

-soul music

-talk about the lyrics of slave songs/how they related to clues along the Underground Railroad

-write a song about slavery and the time period

Science

-cotton plantation (harvested, grown, geography of land)

-health conditions

Physical Education/Movement and Health

-what physical effects did they endure

-game

Math

-ratio of slaves to white

-find percent of whites compared to blacks in the U.S.

-How many slaves did they fit on the ships to send over to America?

Technology

-PowerPoint presentations about slavery issues

-cotton gin-how it effected the economy

-visit the Underground Railroad websites

Field Trips/Guests

-descendant of a slave

-history teacher

Accommodations for Learners

ESL student

- draw pictures

- give time to translate assignment into English

- provide a tape

recording of a part of the lesson.

- write in their native tongue

- pair up with

an English speaking student

Assessment

- write a letter

- students devise a freedom plan, and teachers evaluates it.

- analyze an “I am from” poem

- write song lyrics

- class participation

 

Culminating Activity/Unit Projects

- Power point presentation on slavery

- Make a poster

about a specific topic related to slavery

- write a letter to their congressman, about their concern for modern day slavery

 

 

Classroom Set Up

Text Box: Desk
,Text Box: Desk
,Text Box: Desk
,Text Box: Desk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Organization and Subject Matter Overview

 

 

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Topic

Introduction to Slavery

The Underground Railroad and Harriet Tubman

The Abolition of Slavery and Abraham Lincoln

Modern Day Slavery

NCSS Standard

Strand II: a) Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

c) Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past.

f) Use knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with elements of historical inquiry, to inform decision-making about and action-taking on public issues. 

Utah Core Objective

Standard 6

Objective 3:

Trace the development of social and political movements

Standard 11

Objective 2:

Examine the political divisions of the United States

Standard 4

Objective 1:

Analyze the role of leaders in the development of the New World

Standard 6

Objective 3:

Trace the development of social and political movements

Standard 6

Objective 2:

Examine the reasons for the Civil War (abolition)

Standard 7

Objective 1:

Examine the development social and political movements

Learning Activities

Where did slavery begin?

Life of Harriet Tubman

Persecution of slaves in the South.

Division and segregation in the South.

What was life like on plantations?

Harriet Tubman’s role in the Underground Railroad

Americans political views of slavery.

Key individuals who fought against slavery, and for their civil rights.

What were the slave rules and laws they had to follow?

What was the Underground Railroad?

Abraham Lincoln’s role in the abolition of slavery.

What are Americans current views on slavery? Do you think slavery exists today?

The apparent need of slavery according to the geographic land features.

What Were the Dimensions of the Underground Railroad?

Timeline giving accounts of slavery and how it was abolished.

Where do you stand as an American citizen on this issue?

Differing viewpoints of slaves

The road to freedom.

Laws enacted in regards to slavery.

What will you do to help change and solve this problem?

 

 

Learning Activities Bank

 

Title of Lesson:  From the Viewpoint of a Slave

Teacher:  Mindee Brown

Date: October 10, 2003

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Level: 5th

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: What Impact Has Slavery Had on Our Nation?

 

Standards Met:  Strand II: Time, Continuity and Change; objectives a and c

 

Goal:  Learners will be able to:

 1.  Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views (Strand II, objective a.) 

2.  Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past (Strand II, objective c.)

 

Objective: Given a variety of different slave accounts, a sample “I am from” poem, and the format to write an “I am from” poem, students will be able to identify and trace the development of social and political movements through the eyes of a slave. 

 

Materials Needed:

-          15-20 accounts of slaves from the website

-          format for an “I am from” poem

-          an example of an “I am from” poem

-          Voices in the Park by Anthony Browne

 

Motivation: Read the children’s book Voices in the Park by Anthony Browne to the students’.  Pause to explain differing perspectives and viewpoints.  After reading the book ask students’ to share their perspectives on slavery. 

 

Procedures:

1.        Pass out a slave account to each student and ask them to read through it, paying

 attention to the characteristics of individual slaves.  Have students’ compare and contrast the lives they live to those of slaves.

  1. Have students brainstorm a list of characteristics related to slaves that they gathered from reading the slave accounts.  Ask them to consider all aspects of a slaves’ life.
  2. Present a sample “I am from” poem to the students’ explaining the different sections that are included in their poem.  For example: items found around the home, yard, plantation, names of relatives, food they eat, memories they have. 
  3. Explain the format of an “I am from” poem.  Have student begin each stanza with “I am from…” and remind them to avoid rhyming in their poems. 

 

5.   Have students’ organize their ideas and then draft their poems.

  1. Ask students’ to share their poems with the class.

 

Accommodations: (ESL student) Provide shorter slave accounts, so they are easier to read through.  Allow student to write a shortened and condensed version of an “I am from” poem, leaving out certain sections if needed.

 

Closure:  Discuss with students why people have different viewpoints.  Explain to them that everyone has different experiences in their lives, which allows them to look at life in very diverse ways.

 

Assessment: Read and evaluate students’ “I am from” poems focusing on their ability to identify and trace the development of slaves’ ideas and perspectives throughout this political movement.  Evaluate their perception of a slaves’ life by looking through their list of ideas and reading through their poems.  

 

Extension: Have students write a personal “I am From” poem about themselves.     

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: Who is Harriet Tubman?

Teacher: Mindee  Brown

Date: October 10, 2003

Time Allotted: 30 minutes

Grade Level: 5th

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: What Impact Has Slavery Had on Our Nation?

 

Standards Met: Strand II: Time, Continuity and Change; objectives a and c   

 

Goal: Learners will be able to compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past (Strand II, objective c.)

 

Objectives: Given an introduction to Harriet Tubman, learners will be able to analyze the role of this leader in the development of the New World by writing a letter to her expressing their concerns and questions about slavery and the Underground Railroad. (Strand IV, objective 1.)

 

Materials Needed:

-          costume resembling a southern farm girl

-          The Value of Helping by Ann Donegan Johnson

-          Map of the United States of America

-          Format for friendly letter writing

-     paper

 

Motivation:  I will dress up like a southern farm girl and explain to the students that I helped slaves escape and flee to freedom in the north.  I will explain to them that I am under the direction and leadership of a person referred to by some slaves as Moses, but we know her as Harriet Tubman; the conductor of the Underground Railroad.  Continue to explain that this woman accomplished a great deal for her people, and expound on her life and accomplishments (referring back to the teacher background information in the unit plan.)  Explain to the students that she experienced many hardships and had dangerous encounters when freeing slaves.  If she were ever caught in the act of freeing slaves she would have been imprisoned and tried in court for a serious crime.  Allow for students questions and comments.     

 

Procedures:

  1. Begin the lesson by giving students an overview of Harriet Tubman’s life by reading, The Value of Helping by Ann Donegan Johnson. Explain where this story takes place by pointing to the state of Maryland on the United States map as you read. Continue pointing out significant places on the map throughout the story.  At the conclusion of the story discuss what was read and allow students to ask questions about the life of Harriet Tubman.
  2. Ask students to think about their knowledge of slavery, Harriet Tubman, and the Underground Railroad.  Have them brainstorm ideas and write them down on paper focusing only on these three topics.
  3. After students have brainstormed a variety of different ideas, ask them to write a letter to Harriet Tubman.  Explain that they can ask her any questions that are related to her life, slavery, and the Underground Railroad.  In the first part of their letter have them focus on questions they might have for her, followed by their concerns and thoughts on slavery, and then conclude with their appreciation for what she has done for our country.
  4. Allow them time to read through and correct mistakes in their writing.  Then ask any volunteers to share their letters with the class.

 

Accommodations: (ESL student) Have student(s) follow the same lesson plan, but write a letter to Harriet Tubman in their native tongue.  Then ask them to share their thoughts with you on an individual basis. 

 

Closure:  Explain to the students the crucial role that Harriet Tubman played in leading hundreds of blacks to freedom.  Let them know that they will be learning more about Harriet Tubman and her life.  Explain that they will be able to answer the questions they asked Harriet and be more informed about the impact slavery has had on our nation.

 

Assessment:  I will assess student’s understanding of this topic by reading through their letters and analyzing their ability to identify the role Harriet Tubman played in the development of the New World.  I will also evaluate their knowledge of letter writing and focus on needed improvements.   

 

Extension:  Allow students to draw a picture, expressing their thoughts and views on Harriet Tubman and her role in the Underground Railroad.    

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: What Did Slaves Experience on the Underground Railroad? (Day One)

Teacher: Mindee Brown

Date: October 10, 2003

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Level: 5th

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: What Impact Has Slavery Had on Our Nation?

 

Standards Met:  Strand II: Time, Continuity and Change; objectives a and c

 

Goal:  Learners will be able to:

 1.  Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or      

 situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views (Strand II, 

 objective a.) 

2.   Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past (Strand II, objective c.)

 

Objectives: Given the simulation experience and discussion within groups, learners will be able to

1.  Identify the role of leaders in the development of the New World and the Underground Railroad.

2.   Effectively work in groups and exchange ideas. 

 

Materials Needed:

            - a copy of script for the simulation experience

            - candles

            - lighter

            - CD player

            - somber music

 

Motivation: Set the mood for this simulated experience of the Underground Railroad by playing somber music, setting out lighted candles, and dimming the lights.  This will provide a somber atmosphere that will prepare students for the lesson.

 

Procedures: (This will be the first part of a two day lesson plan)

  1. Begin this lesson by explaining to student’s that they will be taking on the role of a Hope, Ohio community member, who will be housing slaves and helping them escape through the Underground Railroad.  As the teacher, you will take on the role of Emma Douglas, who is the station master of the Underground Railroad in Hope, Ohio.  Remind students’ that this is a serious event that took place in our history, so we need to treat it as such.

Teacher-in-Role: Emma Douglas

Students-in-Role: Hope, Ohio community members  

  1. Begin this simulation experience by asking students’ to imagine that they are traveling back in time to the 1800’s.  The setting for this experience will be in Hope, Ohio, the year 1845.
  2. Explain to students that the following passage describes their first meeting as slave holders for the Underground Railroad: “It is dark, a little cold and you are shivering, more from fear than the chill in the air.  You are in the cellar of Emma and Levi Douglas.  It is midnight.   You and your neighbors have come to Hope, Ohio’s first meeting to understand your role in helping with the Underground Railroad.”

Emma: “Thank you all for risking your lives by coming out tonight.  My husband, Levi, could not be here tonight because he is in Tennessee meeting with others who will be station masters on the Underground Railroad.  Some of you look familiar and others of you don’t.  Will you please introduce yourselves and tell why you chose to come to our first meeting.”

  1.  At this time, ask students to introduce themselves by going around the circle and giving their names.
  2. Explain to the students’ that as a group they need to make their involvement more solid in the Underground Railroad.  In order to do this they need to decide on a password phrase to let the runaway slaves know which houses are safe places on their journey to Canada.  Let them know that it also might be a good idea to place a lighted black candle with a red ribbon in their windows at night.  This symbol will let the slaves know that they can stop and rest in their houses.     
  3. Next, explain to students that it is time to ready their homes for the “parcels” (slaves) that will be coming anytime during the night or day.  Explain to them that they will need to prepare secret hiding places, food stashes, clothing, etc. for future travelers on the Underground Railroad.
  4.  Ask students to share with the group what they have done to ready their homes for future visitors. 
  5. After sharing, announce that the first “parcel” delivery will come tonight.  All community members should go home, put their candles in the window and wait for a visitor.

 

Accommodations: (ESL student – Spanish speaking) Before teaching this lesson plan, I will find someone to translate the script into Spanish and record it on tape.  Then I will have the student(s) listen to the tape recording so he/she understands what will be taking place.

 

Closure: Ask students how they felt during the simulation.  Listen to their comments and ideas, and discuss how dangerous it was for slaves to escape through the Underground Railroad.  Explain to students’ that we will continue this experience tomorrow.

 

Assessment: During the time students are deciding on their group name and what symbols they will use in their houses, I will walk around assessing students’ participation by documenting their actions with different patterning techniques.  I will be assessing their ability to identify different leaders in the development of the Underground Railroad, and the way they interact with their group members.      

 

Extension: If this lesson finishes early, I will have the students participate in a think-pair-share.  They will think about their experience on the Underground Railroad, share with their partner what they felt, and then we will open it up for a class discussion about what took place on our journey.

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

Adapted from “To Be a Slave” by Debra Melle

 

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: What Were the Dimensions of the Underground Railroad?

Teacher: Mindee Brown

Date: October 10, 2003

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Level: 5th

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: What Impact Has Slavery Had on Our Nation?

 

Standards Met:  Strand II: Time, Continuity and Change; objectives a and c

 

Goal:  Learners will be able to:

 1.  Demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or      

 situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views (Strand II, 

 objective a.) 

2.   Compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past (Strand II, objective c.)

 

Objective: Given a map of Utah, an explanation of how to use the distance key, and steps needed to find freedom, students will be able to

1.   Trace the development of the political movement, the Underground Railroad, by

      mapping a route, and calculating the time and distance to freedom. 

2.   Identify the great lengths taken to acquire freedom, and appreciate this privilege

      in their own lives. 

 

Materials Needed:

            - maps of Utah

            - yarn for measuring

            - background information from the unit plan

            -  markers to draw their route

            - calculators

 

Motivation:  Have students’ take a virtual tour of the Underground Railroad at

 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/j1.html  This website will allow them to look through the eyes of a slave as they embark on the treacherous road of the Underground Railroad.  This website presents students with questions of whether they want to move forward to freedom or go back to slavery.

 

Procedures:

  1. Begin the lesson by explaining the hardships that slaves endured on the Underground Railroad, in order to find freedom. 
  2. Distribute copies of the Utah state map to each base group (5 students per group).  Explain that students must map out a course to free territory.  Give them a starting point and a final destination.  For example, they will begin their journey in Logan, UT and must find their way to Salt Lake City, UT.  If they happen to be unfamiliar with this territory, remind them that just as the slaves educated themselves about their free land, they must do the same.
  3. Each group should begin this activity by drawing out their route to freedom on the given map.
  4.  Explain to students that we use the distance key to measure certain distances on a map.  First we use a ruler or yarn to measure the given distance, and then use the scale that is given to calculate how many units of measurement we have found. 
  5. Now have students calculate the distance for their route using the distance key on the map.  (Measure the distance with yarn and then use the mileage key to add up the total miles of the route.)
  6. Next, estimate how long the trek would take.  Have students use their skill of number sense to approximate how long it would take to walk a mile.  Explain that they would then multiply that time with the total miles of the route to find the total number of hours.  Also ask them to add on minutes or hours that they will need to sleep or rest.  Finally, have them add up the total hours for their journey and find the number of days it will require.
  7. Ask students to explain why they chose this certain route.  What barriers were in the way?  Was the terrain too rough?  Would you follow a path or make your own?  Is their to much population and traffic on this route, that would risk being caught?
  8. Have groups pair up with another group and share the results that they found.  Ask them to explain their reasoning as to why they chose that particular route.  Then have each group share their plan towards freedom with the class, including the distance and time for the route, and their reasons for selecting it.  Discuss with the class which route would be best and why. 

 

Accommodations: (ESL student) In order to accommodate this student’s needs I would allow them to draw a picture of their route, and then give a short explanation as to why they chose it. 

 

Closure: Ask students’ the question, “What lengths would you take to obtain freedom?”  Then discuss with the students’, what great hardships and dangers slaves endured in their pursuit for freedom.  Explain that we should be very thankful for the freedom that we enjoy.  Close by asking each student to share with the class one thing that they are thankful for in relation to freedom. 

 

Assessment: Evaluate students’ plans for freedom focusing on their ability to trace the

development of the political movement, the Underground Railroad, by mapping a

route, and calculating the time and distance to freedom.  Review their results and findings

documenting their understanding of these concepts.   

 

 

Extension: Ask students’ to choose a different route and perform the same steps (see steps 5,6 and 7) to develop their plan for freedom.

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: Introduction to Slavery

Teacher:  Marisa Adams

Date: 10/15/03

Time Allotted: 1 ˝ hours

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: How Did Slavery Impact Our Nation?

Standard Met: NCSS II C

 

Goal: Students will compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past.

 

Objectives: Standard 6, objective3.  Trace the development of social and political movements.

 

Materials Needed:


-Chart paper

-pictures of people

-picture of slave auction

-Savannah Georgia Gazette

-Blank paper

-Internet access


 

Motivation:

1.                  Show clip from website about discrimination. http://www.auburn.edu/pctl/models/EarlyChild/Disc/implement.html

2.                  Lead discussion about how it would feel to not be able to do things because of the color of your hair, or eyes. 

3.                  Why is this important at all?

 

Procedure:

1.                  Make a KWL chart about slavery with the class.

2.                  Tell them that they will be working in their base groups for the day’s activities.

3.                  Make each of the different groups a “center”.

4.                  Explain and model examples from each of the five centers.

5.                  The centers are as follows:

A.     Historical Inquiry with Picture Cards

1.                  Pictures of people will be in the envelope in the middle of the table

2.                  Students look at each picture and put it into one of the four categories: slave, slave owner, abolitionist, and free black.

3.                  Discuss with the group the rationale behind placing the picture in the particular category.

B.      Painting Analysis

1.      Picture of a slave auction in an envelope on the table. (See picture on cover page.)

a.       Students look at the picture of the painting and respond to it using the 4-step critiquing process. :

b.      Describe: Tell exactly what you see

c.       Analyze: Use the elements/principles to reflect upon the art form

d.      Interpret: Consider the following

-What is the artist trying to say?

-What caused the artist to say it?

-What is the historical milieu that surrounds the work of art?

-Why was the work of art created in this particular style?

e.       Evaluate: How successful or important is the work of art?

C.     Letter Writing

1.      Write a letter or a journal entry from the perspective of a slave.

2.      Students may choose to write to anyone (ex. Another slave, slave owner, free black, or to us today).

3.      Share in groups what you have created.

 

D.     Runaway Slave

1.      Have copies of the handout “Savannah Georgia Gazette”, runaway slave advertisements.

2.      Each person picks one to read out loud to the group.

3.      Have students write down a list of ideas in response to the following question: "What was slavery like for those held in bondage?"

 

E.     Freedom vs. Bondage

1.      Have blank pieces of paper in the middle of the table.

2.      Instruct students to divide the paper in half, however they want.

3.      On one side of the paper, entitle it “Freedom”, on the other side, label it “Bondage”.  (It may be necessary to discuss the meaning of the word “bondage”).

4.      Represent both of the words in whatever way they want.  This can be done with pictures, words, symbols, or anything else they want.

 

6.                  Closure:

a.       Talk about what their favorite centers were and why.

b.      What did they learn new about slavery?

7.                  Fill in anything new on the KWL chart

8.                  Hang up the chart for the duration of the unit.

 

Accommodations:  ESL students: have students pair up with another student.  During the centers where writing is involved, have the ESL student tell the other student what to write, or have them collaborate on ideas, and turn in only one paper.

 

Assessment/Evaluation:  Using differing pattern techniques walk around while the students are doing the centers, and document participation.

 

 

Extensions:

1.                  Have the students copy KWL chart on their own paper, or in their journals.  Throughout the unit write down new things they learned, or questions that they might have.

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: Political Boundaries (Day One)

Teacher:  Marisa Adams

Date: 10/15/03

Time Allotted: 1 hour

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: How Did Slavery Impact Our Nation?

Standard Met: NCSS II A

 

Goal: Students will demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

 

Objectives: Standard 11, Objective 2: Examine the political divisions of the United States.

 

Materials Needed:

-Rural perspective paper

-City perspective paper

-Map of agriculture production

 

Motivation:

1.                  Split class into two groups

2.                  Give one group the “rural perspective” and the other group the “city perspective”. Give them ten minutes to read the paragraph out loud and discuss their points. 

3.                  Have them choose a scribe, and write down at least 3 arguments.

4.                  Move desks to face each other. 

5.                  Have group pick a spokesperson.  The spokesperson may hand off the “spokesperson duty” to anyone on his or her side.

6.                  Have both sides debate their points of view.

Procedure:

1.                  Transition:

a.       Ask some of the following questions and open the floor for discussion.

b.      Why did these different sides have such different opinions?

c.       Why did where they were living have such an impact on their political opinions?

d.      Why would it matter where they lived as to what they believed?

e.       What does this have to do with slavery?

2.                  Show them a map of agriculture production during slave times. (See attached)

3.                  Ask them to respond to what they notice about the map.

4.                  Show them the map of the division of the states. (See attached)

5.                  Ask them what they notice about the two maps that are similar.

6.                  Where are most of the crops of America grown?

7.                  What is it about crops that make it so the south needed slaves?

8.                  Closure:  Tell them that they are going to get an assignment, but it’s a very important one.

9.                  Number the students off, one’s and two’s. 

10.              Tell them that the one’s are now the northern states, against slavery, abolitionists.  The number two’s are now the southern states, protecting their property, and defending their rights.

11.              The assignment: 

Go home and research the opinion of the assigned area. Write down at least three arguments about your opinion on slavery.  Remember to stay in character to do this.  Also make up a new name for yourself, and what you do for a living, what your family life is like, and anything else about your life that you would like to add.

 

Accommodations: ESL Learners:  For their assignment, they only need to come up with two arguments.  They also have the option of working with another student in their group.

 

Assessment/Evaluation:  Students will be evaluated on class participation during group discussions.  Teacher will walk around and tally participation activity.

 

Extension:  Research other political boundaries caused by natural resources and write about one perspective.

 

Teacher Reflection:

Teacher Resources:

Map of crop production

http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~atlas/america/static/map16.html

 

map of north/south

http://www.ohioundergroundrailroad.org/slavery.htm

Special thanks are due to Henry Burke for creating this map and for allowing us to post it here.

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: Political Boundaries (Day Two)

Teacher:  Marisa Adams

Date: 10/15/03

Time Allotted: 1 hour

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: How Did Slavery Impact Our Nation?

Standard Met: NCSS II A

 

Goal: Students will demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event, or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in views.

 

Objectives: Standard 11, objective 2: By participating in a debate about differing political views, students will examine the political divisions of the United States.

 

Materials Needed:

-Journals

-Assignments from Day One.

 

Motivation:

1.                  Go over the assignment from yesterday.  

2.                  Ask if there were any problems or questions from the day before.

Procedure:

  1. Move the desks so that there are half students on one side of the room, and half on the other.
  2. Tell them that their side must come up with an opening statement regarding their perspective of slaves, according to which team they were assigned to.
  3. Give the sides time to discuss their arguments and come up with an opening statement.  Decide on one person to be the spokesperson that will give the opening statement.  This cannot be the same person that was the spokesperson yesterday.
  4. Explain the rules of the debate:
    1. Only one speaker at a time
    2. No put downs
    3. Stay in character
  5. Have each student stand up and give us their name and occupation, and anything special about themselves that they would like to add. 
  6. The debate starts (a coin is flipped to see which side gives their opening statement first.), each team are given time for their opening statement, and then the floor is open for rebuttals.
  7. Give them a certain amount of time for the debate, or stop them when they seem to be going in circles, or repeating themselves. 
  8. Tell them that you are giving each team five minutes to come up with a closing statement. They can write it down, and it can be read if they choose. 
  9. Give each team time to give their closing statement.
  10. Closure:  Have the students move the desks back to their normal positions
  11. Tell them to write about what they felt in their journals.  Tell them to be as specific as possible. 

 

Accommodations:  ESL learners: give them time in class to translate their assignment into English.  Allow them to read their statements during the debate.

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Learners will be evaluated according to participation during the debate.  Inform students at the beginning of the lesson that this is how they will be assesses.

 

Extension:  “Switch Sides”: Whichever side they were assigned to debate on in class, have them write from the perspective of the other side.  If the assignment is in class, have them physically move to the other teams’ desks. 

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Lesson: Slave Music

Teacher:  Marisa Adams

Date: 10/15/03

Time Allotted: 1 hour

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 25

 

Unit Theme: How Did Slavery Impact Our Nation?

Standard Met: NCSS II C

 

Goal: Students will compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places or situations, identifying how they contribute to our understanding of the past.

 

Objectives: Standard 6, Objective 3: Trace the development of social and political movements.

 

Materials Needed:

-Internet access

-“My Country ‘Tis of Thee” song

-Copies of Lyrics to “Steal Away”(25)

-Transparency of quote from website

 

Motivation:

1.                  Play “My Country ‘Tis of Thee” for the students.  Tell them to pay attention to how they feel as they listen to the music and the words.

2.                  Have them write down lyrics to one of their favorite songs. 

3.                  Ask them why it is their favorite song, and tell them to write that down too.

4.                  Do a think-pair-share with the group, then the class to those that want to share.

 

Procedures:

1.                  Lead into a discussion about slave music.  Ask questions such as:

a.       Why is music so important to us?

b.      Why was music so important to the slaves?

c.       What did the music do for them?

d.      Why were the lyrics so important?

2.                  Tell students that you are going to play one of the most famous songs from that time.  Tell them to pay particular attention to the feeling and the lyrics.

3.                  Play “Roll Jordan Roll”.     http://www.ket.org/underground/resources/music.htm

4.                  Share with them Frederick Douglass’ quote:

"They would sing words which to many would seem unmeaning jargon, but which nevertheless, were full of meaning to themselves. I have sometimes thought that the mere hearing of those songs would do more to impress some minds with the horrible character of slavery than the reading of whole volumes of philosophy. I did not, when a slave, understand the deep meaning of those songs. They told a tale of woe which was then altogether beyond my feeble comprehension; they were tones loud, long, and deep; they breathed the prayer and complaint of souls boiling over with the bitterest anguish. Every tone was a testimony against slavery and a prayer to God for deliverance from chains...Slaves sing most when they are most unhappy. The songs of the slave represent the sorrows of his heart; and he is relieved by them, only as an aching heart is relieved by its tears."

5.                  Ask the students to respond to the song and the quote. 

6.                  Play “Steal Away” (located on the same address as above).  This time pass out copies of the lyrics so the students can read along with the song.

7.                  The lyrics to the song are:

Lyrics to Steal Away

Steal away, steal away, steal away to Jesus!
Steal away, steal away home, I ain't got long to stay here!

  1. My Lord calls me, He call me by the thunder;
  2. Green trees are bending, Poor sinner stands a'trembling;
  3. Tombstones are bursting, Poor sinner stands a'trembling;
  4. My Lord calls me, He call me by the lightning;

The trumpet sounds within in-a my soul, I ain't got long to stay here

 

8.                  Discuss what a “code” is.  Why would they have needed to use code?  What codes can the students pick out of the songs that they heard? 

9.                  Put transparency of the quote from the website on the overhead, and have one student read it out loud.

10.              Quote:

O Canaan was used to refer to the trip to Canada and freedom. One Last River and Roll Jordan Roll are references to the Ohio River as the border between free and slave states. Follow the Drinking Gourd was an instruction to use the North Star as a navigational tool. Wade in the Water was warnings given by fellow slaves to help escaping slaves elude capture by slave catchers with packs of dogs.

11.              Closure:

a.       Are songs popular with young people today "coded" in any way?

b.      Have them discuss in their groups songs that they think might be coded.

c.       Each group shares one idea that they have come up with.

 

Accommodations:  ESL Learner: Write song lyrics in their native tongue.

 

Assessment/Evaluation:

1.                  Students will be evaluated on participation in the group activities.  Teacher will use a chart while walking around.

2.                  Everyone will turn in their lyrics for their songs, and get credit for participation.

 

Extension:

1.                  Have students make up lyrics to a song, or a poem that has a “code”.

 

Teacher Reflection:

 

 

 

Assessment

            Slavery is a vast subject, which encompasses many different values, viewpoints, and perspectives.  As we assess this social and political issue in social studies we need to be aware of our students’ backgrounds, beliefs, and experiences.  As we come to know and understand our students we will be able to effectively educate and assess their abilities.

            It is important to implement a variety of assessment techniques into your teaching.  By assessing students’ in various ways and in diverse settings teachers are able to identify what they need to focus and improve on.

            In this unit plan we have provided various styles of assessment, which can be found in detail in the learning activities bank section. 

            The following are examples and excerpts from our assessment sections:

 

Evaluate students’ plans for freedom focusing on their ability to trace the

development of the political movement, the Underground Railroad, by mapping a

route, and calculating the time and distance to freedom.  Review their results and findings

documenting their understanding of these concepts.   

 

During the time students are deciding on their group name and what symbols they

will use in their houses, I will walk around assessing students’ participation by documenting their actions with different patterning techniques.  I will be assessing their ability to identify different leaders in the development of the Underground Railroad, and the way they interact with their group members.     

 

I will assess student’s understanding of this topic by reading through their letters and analyzing their ability to identify the role Harriet Tubman played in the development of the New World.  I will also evaluate their knowledge of letter writing and focus on needed improvements.

 

Read and evaluate students’ “I am from” poems focusing on their ability to identify and trace the development of slaves’ ideas and perspectives throughout this political movement.  Evaluate their perception of a slaves’ life by looking through their list of ideas and reading through their poems.  

 

Using differing pattern techniques walk around while the students are doing the centers, and document participation.

 

            Students will be evaluated on class participation during group discussions.  Teacher will walk around and tally participation activity.

 

            Learners will be evaluated according to participation during the debate.  Inform students at the beginning of the lesson that this is how they will be assesses.

 

Appendices

 

Retrieved on October 2, 2003 from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/j1.html

 

Retrieved on October 8, 2003 from

http://americancivilwar.com/women/harriet_tubman.html

 

Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://www.ket.org/underground/resources/visualarts.htm

 

Bial, Raymond.  The Underground Railroad.  Houghton Mifflin, 1995.

 

Bolden, Tony (edited by).  Rites of Passage, Stories About Growing Up by Black Writers from Around the World. 

 

Haskins, Jim.  Get on Board: The Story of the Underground Railroad.  Scholastic Canada, 1995.

 

Retrieved on September 30, 2003 from http://www.auburn.edu/pctl/models/EarlyChild/Disc/implement.html

 

Retrieved on October 7, 2003 from http://www.dl.ket.org/humanities/resources/art/critproc.htm

 

Retrieved on October 3, 2003 from http://www.ket.org/underground/resources/music.htm

 

Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~atlas/america/static/map16.html

 

Retrieved on October 10, 2003 from http://www.ohioundergroundrailroad.org/slavery.htm